Aluminium is the 13th element on the periodic table and a transition metal. Its element is a silver-white light metal with ductility. The main price states are +3 and 0. The content of aluminum in the earth’s crust is second only to oxygen and silicon. It is the most abundant metallic element in the earth’s crust and the second most used metal in the world after iron. However, humans did not master the separation and production of pure aluminium until the 19th century. Almost everyone in the world has used products containing aluminum at some point. This is inseparable from the physical properties of aluminum:
- Density: 2.7g/cm3
- Melting point: 660℃
- Conductivity: 37.7×10^6 S/m
- Brinell hardness: 245MPa
- Tensile strength: 90MPa
- Specific heat capacity: 900 J/(kg·K)
- Resistivity: 2.7 × 10^-8 Ω·m
Chemical Properties Of Aluminum
Aluminium is an active metal and will immediately form an aluminium oxide film in the air. When aluminum powder is mixed with air, it will burn violently and show a strong white flame.
The electronic structure of aluminium is determined based on the atomic number and electron configuration of the element. The atomic number of aluminium is 13, so it has 13 electrons. According to the order of energy level filling, the electron arrangement of aluminum is filled sequentially from the inner layer to the outer layer, following the degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principles. The electronic structure of aluminum can be represented in the following way:
1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p¹.
The atomic number (or proton number) of aluminum is 13, which means that the aluminum atom contains 13 protons in its nucleus. The proton is one of the fundamental particles that make up the nucleus of an atom and has a positive charge.
Aluminum & Aluminium History:
In 1827, German chemist Friedrich Wöhler prepared the first pure aluminum sample and was the first person to begin studying aluminum’s fascinating physical and chemical properties.
In 1854, French chemist Henri Sainte-Claire Deville developed a method for large-scale preparation of aluminum. and published the first extremely comprehensive book describing the manufacture, properties, and emerging applications of aluminum.
In 1886, American Charles M. Hall and Frenchman Paul L. T. Héroult independently developed a method of dissolving aluminum oxide in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6) and electrolyzing it to prepare aluminum at almost the same time.
Within a few years, Austrian chemist Karl Josef Bayer, son of the founder of the famous German chemical and pharmaceutical company Bayer, developed an efficient process for extracting and purifying alumina from bauxite, the most important aluminum ore; Making the Hall–Héroult electrolytic aluminum smelting process economically feasible.
In the early 1960s, aluminum surpassed copper to become the most widely used nonferrous metal in the world.
Aluminum Production Process:
Aluminum is produced using the Hall-Heroult process or the Bayer process. The Bayer process obtains alumina from bauxite. To produce two tons of aluminum, four tons of bauxite are usually required. With the development of technological processes, the production of aluminum has made great progress. The first factories to produce aluminum used cells with 1,000 amps of power, while today’s factories supply their cells with power of up to 500,000 amps. According to the survey, among the existing 124 industries, 113 are related to aluminum. Let us take a look at the common applications of aluminum in life:
Aluminum tubes – commonly used in construction, furniture, display racks, etc.
Aluminum sheets – used in construction, mechanical engineering, dairy production, electrical engineering, food industry.
Other aluminum profiles – used in industrial frames, construction, furniture, radiators such as desks, doors and windows, etc.
Aluminum Alloys – Aluminum alloys are based on aluminum with the addition of certain amounts of other alloying elements. Common aluminum alloy metal products include: aluminium sheets, aluminium coils, aluminum strips, aluminum foil, aluminum circles, etc. It is widely used in aerospace, aviation, transportation, construction, electromechanical, light chemicals and daily necessities.
Aluminum & Aluminum Alloy:
Raw aluminum is the raw material for the production of aluminum materials and aluminum alloys. Commonly added alloying elements include copper, magnesium, zinc, silicon, etc. Aluminum alloys can be divided into deformed aluminum alloys and cast aluminum alloys. The following will give you a detailed description of several commonly used aluminum alloy grades:
Al 1100 is used for processing parts and components that require good formability and high corrosion resistance but do not require high strength, such as chemical products, food industry equipment and storage containers, thin plate processing parts, deep drawing or spinning concave vessels, Welded parts, heat exchangers, printed boards, nameplates, reflective equipment.
1200 AL is a general-purpose aluminum material with a purity of more than 99.0%. The appearance after anodization is slightly white and the same as above. General utensils, heat sinks, bottle caps, printing boards, building materials, heat exchanger components.
2011 aluminum is a free-cutting alloy with good machinability and high strength. But the corrosion resistance is not good. Suitable for volume shafts, optical components, screw heads, screws and machining products that require good cutting performance.
3003 aluminum is used to process parts and components that require good formability, high corrosion resistance and good weldability, or that require both these properties and higher strength than 1000 series alloy aluminum, such as kitchen utensils, food and chemical industries Product handling and storage devices, tanks and tanks for transporting liquid products, various pressure vessels and pipes processed from thin sheets plates.
5052 aluminum is the most representative alloy with medium strength. It has good corrosion resistance, weldability and formability, especially high fatigue strength and good seawater resistance. Used to manufacture aircraft fuel tanks, oil pipes, as well as sheet metal parts for transportation vehicles and ships, instruments, street lamp brackets and rivets, hardware products, etc.
5083 alloy for aluminum welding structures. It is the highest strength corrosion-resistant alloy among practical non-heat-treatable alloys and is suitable for welding structures. Good seawater resistance and low-temperature characteristics. Suitable for ships, vehicles, low-temperature containers, and pressure vessels.
6061 aluminum is a heat-treated corrosion-resistant alloy. Treatment with T6 can have a very high endurance value, but the strength of the welding interface is low, so it is suitable for screws, hinges, ships, vehicles, and land structures.
As a representative alloy for extrusion, 6063 aluminum has lower strength than aluminum 6061, good extrudability, and can be used as shapes with complex cross-section shapes. It has good corrosion resistance and surface treatment properties for construction, highway guardrails, high railings, and vehicles. , furniture, home appliances, decorations.
7072 aluminum has a low electrode potential and is mainly used for corrosion-resistant coverings. It is also suitable for heat sinks in heat exchangers.
7075 aluminum is one of the alloys with the highest strength, but its corrosion resistance is poor. Covering it with 7072 leather can improve its corrosion resistance, but the cost increases. Suitable for aircraft, ski poles, thick plates, and forged products.
About Aluminum – You May Be Interested In:
Is Titanium Lighter Than Aluminum?
No, titanium is actually heavier than aluminum. Titanium has a density of about 4.5 g/cm3, while aluminum has a density of about 2.7 g/cm3. Therefore, aluminum is heavier than titanium.
Does Baking Soda Have Aluminum
No, baking soda does not contain aluminum. Baking soda, also known as sodium bicarbonate, is a compound composed of sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. It’s naturally aluminum-free, and especially when using pure baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) in cooking or baking, you can be sure it’s aluminum-free.
How Many Neutrons Does Aluminum Have?
To determine the number of neutrons in aluminum, we can use the relationship between the number of protons and the atomic mass. The relative atomic mass of aluminum is approximately 26.98. Since the relative mass of atoms is mainly determined by the mass of protons and neutrons, we can approximately think that the relative atomic mass of aluminum is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. Therefore, the number of neutrons = relative atomic mass – number of protons. For aluminum, the number of neutrons = 26.98 – 13 ≈ 14.98. It is concluded that aluminum element contains approximately 14 neutrons.
Why Is Aluminum More Expensive Than Iron?
Although aluminum has more reserves in the earth’s crust than iron, the production process of aluminum is much more complicated than that of iron. Aluminum is a relatively active metal element. Its smelting requires electrolysis, and the cost consumed in the entire production process is higher than that of iron. , so the price of aluminum is higher than that of iron.
How Much Does a Aluminum Can Weigh?
This weight can vary slightly due to variations in can design, thickness, and the specific contents of the can. However, a standard 12-ounce (355 milliliters) aluminum can, commonly used for beverages, typically weighs around 14 to 16 grams.